本文为奴隶社会读者群协作翻译的第 3 篇文章。感谢志愿者：星野， Eye，番茄，Karen，snow。
— Mark Hillsdon
比起前人，如今世界上的很多人都更长寿，也更健康。但据世界卫生组织报道，在全球近 80 亿人口中，至少一半的人仍然缺少最基本的医疗保障。每年有超过 2 亿新增疟疾病例。2018 年有 960 万人死于癌症，占全球死亡人数的六分之一，而全球 71%（大约 4.1 亿人）的死亡人数来源于非传染性疾病。
国际制药商协会联合会（IFPMA，International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufactures & Associations）知识产权和贸易政策负责人 Komal Kalha 表示：“目前比以往任何时候都更需要鼓励持续创新。”
强生公司全球公共健康部负责人 Jaak Peeters 也同意合资企业是创新合作的发展方向。他表示，“哪怕我们能接纳公私合营，并由此进入一个更强大的合作时代，我们也只能解决像人类免疫缺陷病毒（HIV）感染和结核这类疾病。”
Jaak Peeters 表示，在应对人类免疫缺陷病毒（HIV）方面目前已经取得了巨大的进步，随着 40 多种新药的应用，HIV 感染者的治疗方案得以简化，并由此过上了一种理想的、接近正常的生活。但是，如果没有这种支持创新的合作，这样的进步是不可能发生的。
在 WIPO Re:Search 平台上，强生公司是与世界知识产权组织（WIPO，World Intellectual Property Organisation，一个联合国机构）合作的八家制药企业之一。
在应对诸如疟疾这类热带疾病和结核病等被忽视疾病方面，WIPO Re:Search 起到了催化新药和新技术发展的作用。通过创新研究合作和研发合作，使得知识产权可以为需要的研究者所用。
这个知识产权平台，由非盈利全球健康生物企业（BVGH，Bio Ventures for Global Health）管理，其宗旨是联结制药企业和学术界，动员和鼓励商界分享其专业及资产。
全球健康生物企业（BVGH）首席执行官 Jennifer Dent 说：“这样的多方协作给科学家们提供了重要的技巧和经验，帮助他们开发全新的和改良的治疗方法，在这个过程中，公司可以深入了解现有药物的新用法以及拓展市场的知识。”
举例说来，美国制药企业默沙东公司和加州大学圣地亚哥分校日前开展合作，研究该公司的降胆固醇他汀类药物如何用于杀死引起钉螺热（急性血吸虫病）的寄生蠕虫。钉螺热每年使 1 亿多人遭受折磨。重新调整药物用途，用于治疗其他疾病就是新合作的重要组成部分，有助于绕开早期药物开发的大量耗时阶段。
还有一个合作例子就是如何攻克结核病。这种疾病每年致死人数超过 HIV 感染和疟疾加在一起的总人数。在 WIPO Re:Search 的撮合下，日本制药企业武田公司与不列颠哥伦比亚大学成立合资企业，其研究人员可以利用 Takeda 公司对蛋白酶抑制剂的历史突破性研究用于结核病新药的研发。
国际制药商协会联合会（IFPMA）的智库 Global Health Progress ，也是一个支持此类合作的平台。它详细介绍了 200 多个合作项目，都是使用创新方法来应对全球卫生挑战，通过一改传统工作方式，将不同行业（从制造业到电信和金融领域）聚集在一起相互协作。
多方协作让新发明得以应用。能够实时监测生物学数据的可穿戴技术设备就是个好例子。此外，远程医疗也越来越受欢迎。仅印度就有超过 4.2 亿的移动互联网用户，代表着整合在线健康保健系统可以覆盖的很大一部分人口。这个在线系统有望在 2022 年通过国家健康堆栈计划实现。
私人制药公司也建立了自己的孵化器和中心。Pfizer-IIT Delhi 创新和知识产权项目就是辉瑞公司与创新技术转让基金会（FITT）共同创建的孵化加速器，重点关注就是创新和知识产权
“但也必须指出，合作中确实存在隔阂 — 我们总是谈论获取药物，但我们常常忘记，开发可持续的健康保健解决方案并将其提供给患者并不是一件容易的事，而且不能单打独斗完成。”
Partnerships across pharma, academia, business and tech are the way forward to develop effective treatments for everything from TB to tropical diseases – and getting them to patients in need.
- by Mark Hillsdon
Many people across the world are living longer, healthier lives than their predecessors.
But – according to the World Health Organization – at least half of the global population of almost 8 billion people still do not have full access to essential health services.
Every year, more than 200 million new cases of malaria are reported. In 2018, 9.6 million people died of cancer – one in every six global deaths, while 71% (around 41 million) of all deaths globally were due to non-communicable diseases.
“It is critical that innovation continues and needs to be encouraged – now more than ever,” says Komal Kalha, head of intellectual property and trade policy at IFPMA.
Creating new collaborations and partnerships, where innovation can thrive is an important part of today’s research and development landscape.
Often developed through knowledge hubs and incubators, and traversing different sectors and industries, these joint ventures are a place where entrepreneurs’ ideas come to fruition, and real healthcare innovation takes place.
“The aim of collaborative innovation is to partner across sectors, leverage expertise and find solutions that are long-term and sustainable,” says Kalha.
“In addition to access to capital and talent to innovate, other ways to incentivise innovation include an efficient regulatory system that is predictable, transparent and scientifically rigorous, and has respect for intellectual property,” she says.
Jaak Peeters, head of global public health at Johnson & Johnson, agrees that joint ventures are the way forward. “We can only solve diseases like HIV and TB if we embrace public-private cooperation and enter an era of extreme collaboration,” he says.
Huge progress has been made tackling HIV, he says, with some 40 new drugs, simplified treatment regimes and a near-normal life expectancy for people living with HIV – but such progress wouldn’t have been made without collaborations that supported innovation.
“With other new technologies on the horizon, we must come together now to ensure we have the right capabilities and resources in place to ensure they will reach the patients who need them as quickly as possible,” he says.
“Recognising we can’t do this alone, we seek to bring together public and private resources, invest in science both inside and outside of our walls, and offer access to our R&D capabilities.”
Johnson & Johnson is one of eight drug companies working with the World Intellectual Property Organisation(WIPO), a UN agency, on its WIPO Re:Search platform.
WIPO Re:Search catalyses the development of new medicines and technologies in the fight against neglected tropical diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis.
Through innovative research partnerships and research and development collaborations it makes intellectual property available to researchers who need it.
Its Resource Platform, managed by non-profit Bio Ventures for Global Health(BVGH) connects pharmaceutical companies with academia, and mobilises and encourages businesses to share their expertise and assets.
“This gives scientists important skills and experience, helping them develop new and improved treatments, while companies gain insights into new applications for their existing drugs and knowledge about expanding markets,” says BVGH's chief executive Jennifer Dent.
A current partnership between MSD and the University of California,San Diego,for instance,is looking at how the company's cholesterol-lowering statins can also be used to kill the parasitic worms that cause snail fever, a disease that afflicts more than 100 million people each year.
Repurposing medicines to treat other conditions is an important part of these new collaborations and can help to bypass many of the time-consuming stages of early drug discovery.
Another partnership is tackling TB, which now kills more people each year than HIV and malaria put together.
WIPO Re:Search has brokered a joint venture between Japanese drug company Takeda and the University of British Columbia, which allows researchers to mine Takeda's historical research into protein inhibitors as part of their work on a new TB drug.
IFPMA's own knowledge hub, Global Health Progress, is another platform championing collaborations. It details more than 200 partnerships that are using innovative approaches to confront global health challenges and transform traditional ways of working by bringing together different business sectors, from manufacturing to telecommunications and finance.
Collaboration around other technologies such as robotics, artificial intelligence, big data, and machine learning is increasingly being seen as just as important to healthcare solutions as biology and chemistry.
These partnerships have already led to innovations such as wearable tech devices, which monitor biological data in real time. The use of telemedicine, too, may soon be in the ascendant. India alone has more than 420 million mobile internet users, representing a significant proportion of the population that could be reached by an integrated online healthcare system – one which may become a reality by 2022 with the government's National Health Stack programme.
Individual pharma companies have also set up their own incubators and hubs. The Pfizer-IIT Delhi Innovation and IP programme has been co-created by Pfizer and the Foundation for Innovation and Technology Transfer (FITT) as a collaborative incubation accelerator, with a focus on innovation and IP.
“There are collaborations taking place across the world and in different sectors,” says Kalha.
“However, gaps do exist and these need to be addressed – we talk about access to medicines but we often forget that developing sustainable healthcare solutions and getting them to patients is no easy task and it cannot be done alone,” she says.
“In order to get new and efficient products to market, you must incentivise innovation. It is not just collaborations within the pharma industry that are important – they need to be cross-sector, too. If there are other stakeholders out there, willing to work to advance innovation with industry, then let’s do it.”